Antiport is the membrane transport of substances in opposite directions. A substance could also be sequestered through the antiport within another compartment. The Na+/H+ antiporters in different organisms (bacteria/plants/humans) determine the sodium/proton balance in the cells and are keys to adaptation to high salinity or extreme pH. It is supposed that the ion exchange is regulated by a conformational change elicited by pH at the entry site (Hunte C et al 2005 Nature [Lond] 435:1197)

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