PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, 17q12)

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A transcription factor in the adipogenic (fat synthetic) pathways. The three types α, γ, and δ show different distribution in human tissues and associate with different ligands. PPARα is the target for the drugs and fibrates (amphipatic carboxylic acids) that reduce triglycerides. Type α also acts as a transcription factor for several genes affecting lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism. PPARγ is a (3p25) regulator of glucose, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism, may be sensitized by thiazolidinediones (TZD), and offers some hope to be used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type2 (IDDM). PPARγ2 deficiency dramatically reduces adipogenesis in mouse fibroblasts whereas PPARγ1 affects obesity and diabetes (Zhang J et al 2004 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:10703). The PPARγ 12Ala allele is associated with a small yet significant reduction in the risk for diabetes type II. PPARγ agonists have a controversial—promoting and suppressing—effect on polyposis of the colon and other cancers. In hu ...