Shield Bearer Moths (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae)
- John B. Heppner
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Shield bearer moths, family Heliozelidae, total 106 species from all regions, with more than half the species split between North America (31 sp.) and Australia (36 sp.); actual fauna probably exceeds 200 species. The family is in the superfamily Incurvarioidea, in the section Incurvariina, of division Monotrysia, infraorder Heteroneura. Adults minute to small (3–9 mm wingspan), with very smooth head scaling (one sp. has roughened head scales in the Neotropics); haustellum scaled and scales usually merging with head scaling to form a triangular-appearing face; labial palpi porrect; maxillary palpi minute, 5-segmented. Maculation usually dark with shining metallic- iridescence, plus some light markings. Adults are diurnal. Larvae make serpentine leaf mines at first, then make blotch mines in later instars. Host plants include a variety of hardwood trees and bushes.
- Kuroko, H (1961) The genus Antispila from Japan, with descriptions of seven new species (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae). Esakia 3: pp. 11-24
- Lafontaine, JD (1973) Eastern North American species of Antispila (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae) feeding on Nyssa and Cornus. Can Entomol 105: pp. 991-994 CrossRef
- Snodgrass RE (1922) The resplendent shield-bearer and the ribbed-cocoon-maker: two insect inhabitants of the orchard. Smithsonian Reports 1920, 485–509, 3 pl
- Wojtusiak J (1976) Heliozelidae. In Klucze do Oznaczania Owadów Polski. 27. Motyle & Lepidoptera 94:1–18. Polskie Towardzystwo Entomologiczne [in Polish], Warsaw
- Shield Bearer Moths (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae)
- Reference Work Title
- Encyclopedia of Entomology
- pp 3369-3370
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- Springer Netherlands
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- Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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