Reference Work Entry

The Springer Index of Viruses

pp 13-28

Aviadenovirus

Adenoviridae
  • Balázs HarrachAffiliated withVeterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Email author 
  • , Gyözö L. KajánAffiliated withVeterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Virion

Morphology

Icosahedral

Envelope

No

Diameter (nm)

74–80

Length (nm)

 

Structural components

Core, capsid, fiber

Buoyant density (g/mL)

1.32–1.37

Buoyant density method

CsCl

Lipid composition

No

Additional information

Two fibers projecting from each vertex of FAdVs, 21–29 nm in length except FAdV-C (17–20 nm) and FAdV-A members (different lengths: 11 and 47 nm)

https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-0-387-95919-1_2/MediaObjects/978-0-387-95919-1_2_Fig1_HTML.gif
Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-9 strain A-2).Fig. 1

Negatively stained uranyl acetate-purified intact virus particle showing the characteristic double fibers of fowl adenoviruses. Length of bar (nm): 100 (From Gelderblom H, Maichle-Lauppe I (1982) Arch Virol 72:289–298. With permission)

Genome

Nucleic acid

DNA

Strandedness

Double-stranded

Polarity

Configuration

Linear

Segment organization

Segment No. 1 (kb):

43.8–45.4

One segment(s):

43.8–45.4 (kb) total (calculated)

G + C content (%)

55.0–66.9

mRNA transcripts

 

Open reading frames

37–39

Additional information

Genomic DNA is linked to terminal protein at its 5′ ends

Replication

Entry mechanism

Receptor-mediated endocytosis involving fiber and penton base proteins

Site of transcription

Nucleus

Transcriptase

Cellular RNA polymerase II

Site of genome replication

Nucleus

Replicase

Virus-encoded DNA-dependent DNA polymerase

Replication intermediate

Presumed pan-handle intermediate base-paired through ITRs

Site of virion assembly

Nucleus

Egress mechanism

Disintegration of the host cell

Additional information

Viral infection mediates the early shut-down of host DNA synthesis, and later the host RNA and protein synthesis

History

Year of event

Event

Reference

1949

Isolation of a virus from egg which was later identified as the first avian adenovirus

Van den Ende MP (1949) J Gen Microbiol 3:174–182

1950

First avian AdV isolated from a distinct clinical condition in birds

Olson NO (1950) Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the US Livestock Sanitary Association, pp 171–174

1962

The group specific antigens found to be different in aviadenoviruses and mastadenoviruses

Sharpless GR (1962) Ann NY Acad Sci 101:515–519

1972

Distinct turkey adenovirus serotype described

Scott M, McFerran JB (1972) Avian Dis 416:413–420

1977

Eleven FAdV serotypes distinguished

McFerran JB, Connor TJ (1977) Avian Dis 21:585–595

1978

Fowl adenoviruses do not share antigens with turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV)

Domermuth CH, Gross WB (1978) In: Hofstad MS et al (eds) Diseases of poultry, 7th edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames IA, pp 591–595

1978

FAdVs and EDS virus do not share antigens detectable by immunodiffusion test

McFerran JB et al (1978) Avian Pathol 7:629–636

1982

New adenovirus serotype isolated from muscovy duck (DAdV-2)

Bouquet JF et al (1982) Avian Pathol 11:301–307

1982

FAdVs have two fibers (while EDS virus has only one)

Gelderblom H, Maichle-Lauppe I (1982) Arch Virol 72:289–298

1982

Serotype criteria defined, genus attribution of EDS virus questioned by an international committee

Wigand R et al (1982) Intervirology 18:169–176

1983

First restriction map of an aviadenovirus (FAdV-1)

Shimada K et al (1983) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 740:169–178

1983

First DNA sequence from an aviadenovirus (ITRs of FAdV-1)

Shinagawa M et al (1983) Virology 125:491–495

1984

Three goose AdV serotypes identified

Zsák L, Kisary J (1984) Avian Pathol 13:253–264

1984

Fowl adenoviruses grouped by restriction enzyme digession pattern (A to E)

Zsák L, Kisary J (1984) Intervirology 22:110–114

1986

VA RNA sequences and locations show dramatic difference between aviadenoviruses and mastadenoviruses

Larsson S et al (1986) J Virol 58:600–609

1990

Full genome sequencing of FAdV-1 initiated

Akopian TA et al (1990) Nucleic Acids Res 18:2825

1992

Mapping and sequencing of the first non-mammalian AdV structural gene (FAdV-10 penton base)

Sheppard M, Trist H (1992) Virology 188:881–886

1993

Intertypic serological behavior of certain FAdV-E (FAdV-8) strains recognized

Pallister JA et al (1993) Intervirology 36:84–90

1995

The two fibers (of different sizes) of FAdV-1 are found to be coded by two genes

Hess M et al (1995) J Mol Biol 252:379–385

1996

First full genome sequence of an aviadenovirus (FAdV-1)

Chiocca S et al (1996) J Virol 70:2939–2949

1996

Differences in the fiber knob are responsible for the pathogenicity of FAdV-8 strains

Pallister J et al (1996) J Virol 70:5115–5122

1997

Identification of a novel antiapoptotic protein, GAM-1, encoded by FAdV-1

Chiocca S et al (1997) J Virol 71:3168–3177

1997

EDS virus proposed to be classified into a new genus shared by “subgroup 2” bovine AdVs and ovine AdV isolate 287

Harrach B et al (1997) Virology 229:302–306

1998

New AdV serotype found in pigeon; other pigeon isolates identified as known FAdV serotypes

Hess M et al (1998) Avian Pathol 27:196–199

1998

Transcriptional organization of FAdV-1 revealed

Payet V et al (1998) J Virol 72:9278–9285

1998

PCR for FAdVs (and for their differentiation from EDS virus)

Raue R, Hess M (1998) J Virol Methods 73:211–217

1999

Mutational analysis of FAdV-1 provides a basis for gene delivery vectors

Michou AI et al (1999) 73:1399–1410

2000

New species concept introduced; EDS virus and THEV removed from genus (to “unassigned viruses of the family”)

Benkö M et al (2000) In: van Regenmortel MHV et al (eds) Virus taxonomy. Seventh Report of the ICTV. Academic, New York, pp 227–238

2000

Second full genome sequence from aviadenoviruses (FAdV-9)

Ojkic D, Nagy É (2000) J Gen Virol 81:1833–1837

2001

New type gosling viral enteritis first described

Cheng AC et al (2001) World J Gastroenterol 7:678–684

2001

CAR defined as cellular receptor for FAdV-1 fiber 1 but not for fiber 2 (which is essential)

Tan PK et al (2001) J Gen Virol 82:1465–1472

2002

Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 associated with outbreaks of infectious hydropericardium

Dahiya S et al (2002) Avian Dis 46:230–233

2002

The gene transcription of FAdV-9 described

Ojkic D et al (2002) 302:274–285

2004

Phylogenetic analysis of fowl adenoviruses

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

2005

Phylogenetic analysis of the hexon of an adenovirus from psittacine birds supports the existence of a new psittacine aviadenovirus

Raue R et al (2005) Arch Virol 150:1933–1943

2005

New aviadenovirus described and characterized from falcons

Schrenzel M et al (2005) J Clin Microbiol 43:3402–3413

2005

Novel aviadenovirus associated with fatal hepatic and lymphoid necrosis in a Meyer’s parrot described

Wellehan JFX et al (2005) J Avian Med Surg 19:191–197

2006

Sequence analysis of the left end of fowl adenovirus genomes

Corredor JC et al (2006) Virus Genes 33:95–106

2007

Structure of the C-terminal head domain of FAdV-1 long fiber determined

Guardado-Calvo P et al (2007) J Gen Virol 88:2407–2416

2008

Sequence comparison of the right end of fowl adenovirus genomes

Corredor JC et al (2008) Virus Genes 36:331–344

2008

Structure of the C-terminal head domain of FAdV-1 short fiber determined

El Bakkouri M et al (2008) Virology 378:169–176

2008

573 clinical submissions with FAdV involvement were examined to investigate the association of different types of FAdV with clinical problems

Ojkic D et al (2008) Avian Pathol 37:95–100

2008

FAdV-4 was shown causing depletion of B and T cells in lymphoid organs in chickens following experimental infection

Schonewille E et al (2008) Vet Immunol Immunopathol 121:130–139

2009

Hydropericardium syndrome causing FAdV-4 strains isolated in Japan differ from the isolates from Pakistan and India

Mase M et al (2009) J Vet Med Sci 71:1455–1458

2010

Parts of FAdV-9 genome for gene insertion/replacement determined

Corredor JC et al (2010) Virus Res 149:167–174

2010

Hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome associated with adenovirus infection in goslings

Ivanics É et al (2010) Acta Vet Hung 58:47–58

Genus Members

Species name

Synonyms

Wild-type strains/isolates

Natural host range

Experimental host range

Membership status

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-A)

Fowl adenovirus 1 (FAdV-1); chicken embryo lethal orphan virus (CELO)

112; CELO; Phelps; QBV; OTE; H1; Fontes; PLA2

Chicken, quail, guinea fowl, ostrich

 

Type species

Falcon adenovirus A (FaAdV-A)

Falcon adenovirus 1 (FaAdV-1)

 

Aplomado/orange-breasted/teita falcon, kestrel

 

Approved member

Fowl adenovirus B (FAdV-B)

Fowl adenovirus 5 (FAdV-5)

340; M2; Tipton; TR22

Chicken, pigeon

 

Approved member

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-C)

Fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4); fowl adenovirus 10 (FAdV-10)

FAdV-4: 341; 506; Da60; H2; J2; K31; K1013; KR5; FAdV-10: C-2B; CFA20; M11; SA2

Chicken, psittacines

 

Approved member

Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-D)

Fowl adenovirus 2 (FAdV-2); fowl adenovirus 3 (FAdV-3); fowl adenovirus 9 (FAdV-9); fowl adenovirus 11 (FAdV-11)

FAdV-2: 685; GAL1; H3; IDA1; P7; SR48; FAdV-3: 75; H5; SR49; FAdV-9: 93; A2; FAdV-11: 161; 380; UF71

Chicken, pigeon, ostrich

 

Approved member

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-E)

Fowl adenovirus 6 (FAdV-6); fowl adenovirus 7 (FAdV-7); fowl adenovirus 8a (FAdV-8a); fowl adenovirus 8b (FAdV-8b)

FAdV-6: 168; CR119; WDA6; FAdV-7: 122; X11; YR36; FAdV-8a: 58; T8; TR59; FAdV-8b: 764; B3; CFA3

Chicken, ostrich, pigeon

 

Approved member

Goose adenovirus (GoAdV)

Goose adenovirus 1 (GoAdV-1)

GoAdV-1: P29; GoAdV-2: N1; GoAdV-3: 569

Goose

 

Approved member

Duck adenovirus B (DAdV-B)

Duck adenovirus 2 (DAdV-2)

GR

Muscovy duck

 

Tentative member

Pigeon adenovirus (PiAdV)

Pigeon adenovirus 1 (PiAdV-1)

IDA4, IDA5

Pigeon

 

Tentative member

Turkey adenovirus B (TAdV-B)

Turkey adenovirus 1 (TAdV-1)

D90/2

Turkey

 

Tentative member

 

Psittacine adenovirus 1 (PsAdV-1)

GB 818-3

Psittacine birds

 

Unassigned

 

Meyer’s parrot adenovirus 1

 

Meyer’s parrot

 

Unassigned

 

Turkey adenovirus 2 (TAdV-2)

T2

Turkey

 

Unassigned

Nucleotide Sequences

Genomic region

Species

Strain

Nucleotides

Access number

Reference

Complete genome

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-1)

Phelps (ATCC VR-432)

43,804

U46933

Chiocca S et al (1996) J Virol 70:2939–2949

Complete genome

Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-9)

A-2A (ATCC VR-833)

45,063

AF083975

Ojkic D, Nagy É (2000) J Gen Virol 81:1833–1837

Complete genome

Turkey adenovirus B (TAdV-1)

D90/2

45,412

GU936707

Kaján GL et al (2009) Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Veterinary Virology, Budapest

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus B (FAdV-5)

340

909

AF508952

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

Left hand end (up to IVa2), map units 0–15

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-4)

CA

7,578

DQ208709

Corredor JC et al (2006) Virus Genes 33:95–106

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-4)

 

728

AF154246

Ganesh K et al (2001) Vet Microbiol 78:1–11

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-4)

506

884

AF508950

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

Right hand end (from fiber), map units 65–100

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-4)

CA

16,680

EF458161

Corredor JC et al (2008) Virus Genes 36:331–344

Left hand end (up to IVa2), map units 0–15

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

C-2B

7,535

DQ208710

Corredor JC et al (2006) Virus Genes 33:95–106

Major late promoter and pre-terminal protein gene

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

CFA20

6,077

AF007577

Sheppard M et al (1998) Arch Virol 143:537–548

Penton base (protein III)

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

SA 2

1,679

M87008

Sheppard M, Trist H (1992) Virology 188:881–886

Core proteins (pVII and pX)

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

SA 2

1,218

L08450

Sheppard M, Trist H (1993) Arch Virol 132:443–449

Hexon

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

SA 2 (not sure)

3,315

U26221

Sheppard M et al (1995) J Gen Virol 76:2595–2600

100 kDa protein

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

SA 2 (not sure)

2,397

L07890

Sheppard M (1993) Gene 132:307–308

33 kDa and pVIII proteins

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

CFA20

1,814

AF006739

Sheppard M et al (1998) DNA Seq 9:37–43

Fiber

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

CFA20 (not sure)

1,496

AF007579

Sheppard M et al (1998) DNA Seq 8:391–396

Right hand end (from ORF22), map units 70–100

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

C-2B

12,745

EF458162

Corredor JC et al (2008) Virus Genes 36:331–344

Right hand end (from ORF27), map units 80–100

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10)

CFA20

8,438

AF160185

Sheppard M et al (1998) Arch Virol 143:915–930

Left hand end (up to IVa2), map units 0–15

Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-2)

CA

7,455

DQ208708

Corredor JC et al (2006) Virus Genes 33:95–106

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-2)

SR48

899

AF508946

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

Right hand end (from fiber), map units 65–100

Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-2)

CA

13,161

EF458160

Corredor JC et al (2008) Virus Genes 36:331–344

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-3)

75

896

AF508949

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-11)

UF71

593

EU979378

Steer PA et al (2009) J Clin Microbiol 47:311–321

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-6)

CR119

903

AF508954

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-7)

YR36

899

AF508955

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

Left hand end (up to IVa2), map units 0–15

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-8)

CA

7,551

DQ208711

Corredor JC et al (2006) Virus Genes 33:95–106

pVIII, U exon, fiber, URFs

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-8, probably 8b)

CFA3

4,055

U40588

Pallister J et al (1996) J Virol 70:5115–5122

Right hand end (from fiber), map units 65–100

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-8)

CA

13,892

EF458163

Corredor JC et al (2008) Virus Genes 36:331–344

Right hand end (from 100 K), map units 60–100

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-8)

CFA40

19,056

AF155911

Johnson MA et al (2000) Dev Comp Immunol 24:343–354

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-8a)

58

902

AF508957

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

Hexon (partial)

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-8b)

TR59

903

AF508956.2

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

Penton, pVII, pX, pVI, hexon

Falcon adenovirus A (FaAdV-1)

 

6,257

AY683541

Schrenzel M et al (2005) J Clin Microbiol 43:3402–3413

Hexon (partial)

Pigeon adenovirus (PiAdV-1)

IDA4

1,184

FN824512

Hess M et al (1998) Avian Pathol 27:196–199

Polymerase (partial)

Meyer’s parrot adenovirus

 

275

AY644731

Wellehan JFX et al (2005) J Avian Med Surg 19:191–197

Hexon (partial)

Psittacine adenovirus 1

GB 818-3

1,125

EF442329

Luschow D et al (2007) Avian Pathol 36:487–494

https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-0-387-95919-1_2/MediaObjects/978-0-387-95919-1_2_Fig2_HTML.gif
Genome organization of fowl adenovirus 1. Fig. 2

Black arrows represent genes present in all adenoviruses, white arrows show genes (or larger ORFs) unique for fowl adenoviruses (Modified from Chiocca S et al (1996) J Virol 70:2939–2949. With permission)

Proteins

Protein name

Protein name abbreviation

Number of amino acids

Molecular weight (kDa)

Time of expression

Accession numbers

Additional information

ORF0

 

74–94

8.1–10.7

 

AP_000400; AP_000366; ABB18355; ABB18343; ABB18330; ABB18319

 

dUTP pyrophosphatase

dUTPase

153–192

16.5–20.5

Early

AAC54895; AAD50334; AAC71662; ABB18344; ABB18356; ABB18331; ABB18320

In vitro enzymatic activity reported, transforming potential not investigated

ORF1A

 

48–55

5.3–5.9

 

AP_000402; AP_000368; ABB18345; ABB18332; ABB18321

 

ORF1B

 

61–107

7.2–12.3

 

AP_000403; AP_000369; ABB18346; ABB18333; ABB18322

 

ORF1A/B

 

125

13.9

 

ABB18357

 

ORF1C

 

43–88

4.4–10.0

 

AP_000404; AP_000370; ABB18358; ABB18323

 

ORF2

 

267–276

31.2–31.5

Presumed early

AAC54897; AAC71663; ABB18347; ABB18334; ABB18324

 

ORF24

 

126–228

14.3–26.5

 

AP_000372; ABB18360; ABB18348; ABB18336; ABB18325

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF14a

 

134–195

15.4–23.1

 

ABB18349; ABB18337; ABB18362

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF14

 

160–230

18.7–26.7

Presumed early

AAC54898; AAC71670; AAC71669; ABB18361; ABB18350; ABB18338; ABB18326

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF14b

 

208–209

24.7–28.3

 

ABB18351; ABB18339

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF13

 

265–350

30.1–39.3

Presumed early

AAC54899; AAC71667; ABB18352; ABB18340; ABB18327; ABB18363

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF12

 

199–289

23.2–32.8

Presumed early

AAC54901; AAC71666; ABB18353; ABB18341; ABB18328; ABB18365

Encoded by complementary strand

Maturation protein IVa2

IVa2

380–439

43.7–50.4

Intermediate

AAC54902; AAD50335; ABB18354; ABB18342; ABB18329; ABB18366; AAC71664

Encoded by complementary strand

DNA polymerase

Pol

1,159–1,255

133.5–144.9

Early

AAD50336; AP_000410

Encoded by complementary strand

Terminal protein precursor

pTP

575–618

66.1–71.2

Early

AAC54905; AAD50337; AAB88665

Cleaved by virus-encoded protease; covalently linked to the 5′ ends of genome; complementary strand

Scaffolding protein 52–55 kDa

52 K

378–402

42.1–45.0

Late

AAC54906; AAD50338

 

Protein IIIa precursor

pIIIa

575–591

63.8–65.9

Late

AAC54907; AAD50339

Cleaved by virus-encoded protease; capsid; monomer

Penton base (protein III)

III

515–570

56.7–62.4

Late

AAC54908; AAD50340; AAA42517; AAV90962

Capsid; five IIIs associated with two fibers form the penton

Major core protein (protein VII) precursor

pVII

72–84

8.6–9.8

late

AAC54909; AAD50341; AAA92580; AAV90963

Cleaved by virus-encoded protease; core; complexed with DNA

Protein X (11 kDa or mu protein) precursor

pX

179–214

18.7–23.3

Late

AAC54910; AAD50342; AAA92581; AAV90964

Cleaved by virus-encoded protease; core; complexed with DNA

Hexon-associated protein VI precursor

pVI

223–228

23.9–24.4

Late

AAC54911; AAD50343; AAV90965

Cleaved by virus-encoded protease; capsid; multimers form a ring under the peripentonal hexons

Major capsid protein (protein II)

Hexon

935–962

105.3–108.9

Late

AAA91647; AAV90966; AP_000384; AP_000418; CAD86791

Capsid; trimer

Endoprotease, protein 23 kDa

Protease

205–206

23.7–23.8

Late

AAC54913; AAD50345

 

DNA-binding protein

DBP

437–441

49.0–49.3

Early

AAC54914; AAD50346

Encoded by complementary strand

100 kDa protein

100 K

798–984

89.0–109.9

Late

AAC54915; AAD50347; AAA72328; AAF17336; AAC71671

 

22 kDa protein

22 K

184

20.7

 

AP_000423

 

33 kDa protein

33 K

196–302

21.9–34.8

Late

AAD50348; AAB88279; AAC71673

 

Hexon-associated protein VIII precursor

pVIII

241–246

26.3–26.7

Late

AAC54916; AAD50349; AAB88280; AAF17337; AAC55300; AAC71674

Cleaved by virus-encoded protease; capsid

U exon protein

U exon

99–132

 

Presumed early

CAA59206; AAC71683; AAF17338; AAC55301

Encoded by complementary strand

Fiber (long), protein IV

Fiber

461–793

48.0–81.5

Late

AP_000426; AAD50350; AAB88670; AAF17339; AAC55302; ABI20701; AAC71676

Capsid; trimer

Fiber (short)

Fiber2

410–571

42.9–60.2

Late

AAC54918; AAD50350; AAB88670; AAF17339; AAC55302; AAQ17079

Capsid; trimer

ORF22

 

97–205

11.4–23.7

Presumed early

AAF17340; ABR53664; ABR53682; ABY63649; AP_000391; AP_000428

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF20A

 

42–184

4.7–20.6

 

ABY63650; ABR53667; ABR53685; ABR53706; AAC55304

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF20

 

206–328

23.6–37.9

Presumed early

AAC54921; AAC71681; AAF17342; AAF17343; ABR53668; ABY63651; ABY63652; ABR53686

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF42

 

132–137

15.0–16.1

 

ABR53681; ABR53687

 

Marek’s disease virus glycoprotein homolog

MDV gp

290–740

32.9–82.4

Presumed early

AAC54924; AAC71680; AAB88667; AAB88668; AAF17344; ABR53649; ABR53669; ABY63653; ABR53688

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF27

 

63–88

6.8–10.2

 

ABR53650; ABR53670; ABR53702; AAF14530

 

ORF31

 

45–89

4.8–9.7

 

AAF14531; ABR53690; ABY63654

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF43

 

221

24.9

 

ABR53671; ABR53691

 

ORF28

 

105

12.5

 

AAF17345; ABR53709

 

ORF29

 

52–96

6.1–11.5

 

AAF17346; ABR53652; ABR53692; ABR53710

 

Antiapoptotic protein GAM-1

GAM-1

187–282

21.2–31.5

Presumed early

AAC54927; AAC71677; AAF14532; AAF17347; ABR53653; ABR53672; ABR53693

 

ORF30

 

97

11.5–11.6

 

ABR53695

 

ORF17

 

149–179

17.4–20.9

Presumed early

AAF14534; AAF17348; ABR53654; ABR53673; ABR53711; AP_000396; AP_000432

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF16

 

113–139

12.5–16.3

Presumed early

AAB88666; ABR53674; ABR53697; AP_000433

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF33

 

171

18

 

AAF17349

 

ORF35

 

97

11.2

 

ABR53655

 

ORF9

 

306

34.2

Presumed early

AP_000434

Contains an immunoglobulin domain

ORF10

 

246

27.2

Presumed early

AP_000435

Contains an immunoglobulin domain

ORF11

 

229–290

25.5–32.3

Presumed early

ABR53715; AP_000397; AP_000436

Contains an immunoglobulin domain

ORF23

 

219–311

24.0–34.5

 

AAF17350; ABR53717; AP_000398

Contains an immunoglobulin domain; encoded by complementary strand

ORF19A

 

830–869

93.1–97.8

 

ABR53678; ABR53700

 

ORF26

 

141

16

 

AP_000437

 

ORF25

 

169–215

18.0–23.8

 

AP_000399; AAF17351

 

ORF36

 

59

6.8

 

ABR53661

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF37

 

78

9.0

 

ABR53662

Encoded by complementary strand

ORF4

 

84–165

9.3–18.4

 

AAB88669; ABR53680; ABR53703

 

Biology

Species

Permissive cell lines

Tissue tropism

Cytopathic effects

Additional information

Fowl adenovirus A to E

Primary chick kidney (CK), chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells

Liver

Basophilic or eosinophilic inclusion bodies

Forms plaques in CK

Goose adenovirus

Fibroblast and liver cells from goose/duck chicken embryos

Liver

Rounded refractile cells, swelling

Cells detach in 48 h

Duck adenovirus B

Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cells

Liver

Refractile round cells

Cells are destroyed by day 5

Pigeon adenovirus

Primary chicken embryo liver (CEL)

Liver, intestine

Rounded, ballooned cells

A few cells detach by day 6 (lysis)

Turkey adenovirus B

Primary cells from turkey or domestic hen kidney

Liver, respiratory organs

Rounded and clumped cells, that detach finally

Cells detach after some days

Diseases

Disease

Causative agent

Affected organisms

Disease characteristics

Transmission route/vector

Treatment

Geographic distribution

Quail bronchitis

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-1)

Bobwhite quail, 0–6 weeks old

Rapid onset, respiratory distress, lesions in respiratory tract, excess mucus in bronchi, mortality up to 80–100%

Aerosol, fecal-oral

 

World-wide

Inclusion body hepatitis

Several FAdVs (certain strains)

Broilers, 5–7 (2–18) weeks old

3–5 (21) days long, mild clinical signs, hepatic necrosis with intranuclear inclusion bodies, 10 (32)% mortality

Fecal-oral, aerosols

 

World-wide

Hydropericardium syndrome

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-4), certain strains

Broilers, 3–5 weeks old

Seven days incubation, 10–15 days, fluid in pericardial sac, pulmonary edema, hepatitis, nephritis, 12–75% mortality

Fecal-oral, aerosols

 

Asia, South America

Classical adenovirosis

Several FAdVs and pigeon adenovirus 1

Pigeons, 0–1 year old

March–July, catarrhal enteritis, diarrhea, vomiting, intestinal damage, loss of proteins/ions, 100% morbidity, few deaths

Fecal-oral

 

World-wide

Necrotizing hepatitis

Several FAdVs

Pigeons all ages

All year, yellow, liquid droppings, massive hepatic necrosis, death within 24–48 h, yellow liver, 30% mortality

Unknown

 

Belgium

Adenovirus associated fatal hepatic and lymphoid necrosis

Meyer’s parrot adenovirus 1

Meyer’s parrot

Fatal hepatic and lymphoid necrosis, death

Fecal-oral

 

North America

Diagnosis

Method

Species

Sample material

Detection target

Reference

PCR

All adenoviruses

Tissue sample (liver preferred), tampon, feces

DNA polymerase gene

Wellehan JFX et al (2004) J Virol 78:13366–13369

PCR

FAdVs

Tissue sample (liver preferred), tampon, feces

Hexon gene

Meulemans G et al (2004) Avian Pathol 33:164–170

PCR

FAdVs (plus EDSV, an atadenovirus, and THEV, a siadenovirus)

Tissue sample (liver preferred)

Hexon gene

Mase M et al (2009) J Vet Med Sci 71:1239–1242

PCR

Pigeon adenovirus 1

Tissue sample (liver preferred)

Fiber gene

Raue R et al (2002) Avian Pathol 31:95–99

PCR

Psittacine adenovirus 1

Tissue sample

Hexon gene

Raue R et al (2005) Arch Virol 150:1933–1943

Vaccine Strains

Strain

Attenuation process

Additional information

Reference

Fowl adenovirus B (FAdV-5) strain Tipton (attenuated)

Seventy-four serial passages in chicken embryos

Provided protection in challenge experiment

Fadly AM, Winterfield RW (1975) Am J Vet Res 36:532–534

Fowl adenovirus E (type 8) CFA 40 (candidate for attenuation)

Not attenuated yet

Provided wide protection against FAdV-8 variants

Pallister JA et al (1993) Intervirology 36:84–90

Vector Constructs

Vector name

Backbone strain

Application

Insertion capacity (kb)

Additional information

Reference

rFAdV-10 /NotI

Fowl adenovirus C (FAdV-10 strain CFA20)

Expression

2.1–2.3

No deletion; FAdV-10 major late prom. at m.u. 99.5

Sheppard M et al (1998) Arch Virol 143:915–930

CELO AIM46

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-1 CELO)

Expression

 

Cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer/promoter driven luciferase gene inserted and expressed

Michou AI et al (1999) J Virol 73:1399–1410

CELO AIM53

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-1 CELO)

Expression

 

Cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer/promote driven green fluorescent protein gene expressed

Michou AI et al (1999) J Virol 73:1399–1410

A3-13

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-8 strain CFA40)

Expression

3.4–3.6

1.3 kb del. (FAdV-1 36 K homolog); FAdV-10 MLP/LS

Johnson MA et al (2000) Dev Comp Immunol 24:343–354

AA1

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-8 strain CFA40)

Expression

2.1–2.3

50 bp (SpeI fragment); FAdV-10 MLP/LS

Johnson MA et al (2000) Dev Comp Immunol 24:343–354

S4

Fowl adenovirus E (FAdV-8 strain CFA40)

Expression

4.3–4.5

2.2 kb del.; FAdV-10 major late prom./leader seq.

Johnson MA et al (2000) Dev Comp Immunol 24:343–354

rCELO-IBDA

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-1 CELO)

Expression

4–5

Expression cassette inserted between 40,065 and 43,685 bp; infectious bursal disease virus proteins

François A et al (2001) J Virol 75:5288–5301

rFdeltaTR2-EGFPinv

Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-9, strain A-2A)

Expression

 

The longer repeat region (TR-2) replaced by enhanced green fluorescence protein gene

Ojkic D, Nagy E (2001) Virology 283:197–206

CELO-IL2

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-1 CELO)

Expression

 

HCMV promoter, expressing human interleukin-2

Cherenova LV et al (2004) Virus Research 100:257–261

CELOa-VP2

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-1 CELO)

Expression

<1.5 kb

329 bp del.; CMV promoter; host-protective antigen VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus

Francois A et al (2004) Vaccine 22:2351–2360

CELO-TK

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-1 CELO)

Expression

 

CMV promoter; expressing herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase

Shashkova EV et al (2005) Cancer Gene Ther 12:617–626

CELO-IB

Fowl adenovirus A (FAdV-1 CELO)

Expression

 

Hybrid promoter hEF-1alpha/HTLV; expressing human recombinant beta-inferferon

Cherentaeva EA et al (2008) Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol (3):37–40

rFAdV-9

Fowl adenovirus D (FAdV-9 strain A-2A)

Expression

1.7

Three different constructs with or without deletion in the left end of the genome; EGFP expression

Corredor JC, Nagy É (2010) Virus Res 149:167–174

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011
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