Newton’s Law of Viscosity, Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluids
 Dr. Herman F. George,
 Dr. Farrukh Qureshi
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Synonyms
Bingham fluids; Dilatant; Power law fluids; Pseudoplastic; Shear thinning
Definition
Viscosity is the physical property that characterizes the flow resistance of simple fluids. Newton’s law of viscosity defines the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate of a fluid subjected to a mechanical stress. The ratio of shear stress to shear rate is a constant, for a given temperature and pressure, and is defined as the viscosity or coefficient of viscosity. Newtonian fluids obey Newton’s law of viscosity. The viscosity is independent of the shear rate.
NonNewtonian fluids do not follow Newton’s law and, thus, their viscosity (ratio of shear stress to shear rate) is not constant and is dependent on the shear rate.
Dynamic viscosity is the coefficient of viscosity as defined in Newton’s law of viscosity. Kinematic viscosity is the dynamic viscosity divided by the density.
Scientific Fundamentals
Newton’s law of viscosity can be developed b ...
 H.A. Barnes, J.F. Hutton, K. Walters, An Introduction to Rheology (Elsevier, New York, 1989)
 R. Bird, W. Stewart, E. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960)
 J. Briant, J. Denis, G. Parc, Rheological Properties of Lubricants (Editions Technip, Paris, 1989)
 R. Larson, The Structure and Rheology of Complex Fluids (Oxford University Press, New York, 1999)
 F. Morrison, Understanding Rheology (Oxford University Press, New York, 2001)
 L. Nielson, Polymer Rheology (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1977)
 Title
 Newton’s Law of Viscosity, Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluids
 Reference Work Title
 Encyclopedia of Tribology
 Pages
 pp 24162420
 Copyright
 2013
 DOI
 10.1007/9780387928975_143
 Print ISBN
 9780387928968
 Online ISBN
 9780387928975
 Publisher
 Springer US
 Copyright Holder
 Springer Science+Business Media New York
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 Editors

 Q. Jane Wang ^{(1)}
 YipWah Chung ^{(2)}
 Editor Affiliations

 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Surface Engineering and Tribology, Northwestern University
 2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Surface Engineering and Tribology, Northwestern University
 Authors

 Dr. Herman F. George ^{(01431)}
 Dr. Farrukh Qureshi ^{(01431)}
 Author Affiliations

 01431. Applied Science, The Lubrizol Corporation, 29400 Lakeland Blvd., Wickliffe, OH, 44092, USA
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