Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development

pp 254-255

Birth Complications

  • Renee GrizzleAffiliated withBall State University


Abnormal presentation; Atypical delivery; Birth trauma


Any atypical feature of birthing process which increases the risk, impacts the delivery, health, or vitality of the infant, and is seen as a complication.


Many factors may place the fetus at risk of poor outcomes. These may arise as a result of abnormal prenatal development in addition to atypical factors that can occur during the birthing process. The major complications of the birth are:

Cesarean delivery: In a cesarean delivery (c-section) the baby is surgically removed from the uterus by making an incision in the abdomen of the mother. This type of delivery is used most often when the fetus is in distress or danger and medical professionals feel it is unwise to wait for the baby to travel through the birth canal [25, 7]. Caesarean deliveries are also used when the baby is in a breech position (feet or buttocks first), transverse position (crosswise), or the head of the bab ...

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