Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Biometrics

pp 924-924

Liveness Detection

In biometric systems, the goal of liveness testing is to determine if the biometric being captured is an actual measurement from the authorized, live person who is present at the time of capture. While biometric systems may have an excellent performance and improve security, previous studies have shown it is not difficult to spoof biometric devices through fake fingers, high resolution images or video, contact lenses, etc. Even though biometric devices use physiologic information for identification/verification purposes, these measurements rarely indicate liveness. Liveness detection reduces the risk of spoofing by requiring a liveness signature in addition to matched biometric information. Methods can include medical measurements such as pulse oximetry, electrocardiogram, or odor. In a few cases, liveness information is inherent to the biometric itself, i.e., the biometric cannot be captured unless the user is live, e.g., electrocardiogram as a biometric. While liveness algorithm make ...

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