Black Racial Identity Development
- Celeste Owens
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The Nigrescence model (or the Black Racial Identity model) was introduced by William Cross Jr. in 1971. Nigrescence, a French word meaning “the process of becoming Black,” outlines five stages that Blacks or African Americans typically follow in a journey toward an integrated racial identity. Since its inception, Nigrescence theory has evolved from one that outlined stages (now called statuses) of identity change as they related to the Black Power Movement to a theory that includes six other levels of Nigrescence. This perspective accounts for a full spectrum of Black identities and highlights the within-group variance of a diverse people. While this theory was designed to outline the racial identity development of adults, it also has relevance for African American youth as they approach adolescence and adulthood.
The Nigrescence Theory
The five stage model purported to outline the experience of racial identity conversion in African American adults and consisted of ...
- Cross, W. E., Jr. (1995). The psychology of Nigrescence: Revising the cross model. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 93–122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Cross, W. E., Jr. & Vandiver B. J. (2001). Nigrescence theory and measurement: Introducing the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS). In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (2nd ed., pp. 371–393). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Youth Activism—http://ya.ssrc.org/: This website is sponsored by the Social Science Research Council and contains articles about African American youth.
- Institute of the Development of African American Youth (IDAAY, Inc.)—http://www.idaay.org/home.htm: The Institute for the Development of African American Youth, Inc. (IDAAY) is a community-based, nonprofit organization, serving Philadelphia and Montgomery Counties. This program offers information about programs that work for African American youth.
- Black Racial Identity Development
- Reference Work Title
- Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural School Psychology
- pp 165-167
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Springer US
- Copyright Holder
- Springer-Verlag US
- Additional Links
- eBook Packages
- Editor Affiliations
- 1. Department of Educational Psychology, The State University of New Jersey
- Celeste Owens (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. School of Medicine, Center for School Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
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