Land Surface Temperature

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Definition

Land surface temperature (LST). Average temperature of an element of the exact surface of the Earth calculated from measured radiance (for a complete definition, see Norman and Becker, 1995).

Blackbody. An ideal material absorbing all incident energy or emitting all thermal energy possible. A cavity with a pinhole aperture approximates a blackbody.

Color temperature. Temperature satisfying Planck’s law for spectral radiances measured at two different wavelengths: for a gray body (this entry), for any emitter, or the blackbody temperature for which visual color is the same as some other source (e.g., in photography).

Emissivityε. The efficiency with which a surface radiates its thermal energy.

Irradiance. The power incident on a unit area, integrated over all directions (Wm−2).

Longwave infrared (LWIR). For most terrestrial surfaces (~340– ~ 240 K) peak thermal emittance occurs at LWIR (~8–14 μm).

Mid-infrared (MIR). Forest fires (~1,000–600 K) have peak thermal emittances ...