Fault scarp, fault-line scarp
- Rhodes W. Fairbridge
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“Scarp” is an abbreviation for “escarpment” meaning an abrupt rise in relief, a cliff or cuesta. The abbreviated form has been used at least from the days of Hutton and Playfair. Although the terms are, strictly speaking, synonymous, scarp is more commonly limited nowadays in North America to cliffs associated with faulting; in Britain, no distinction is made between the two words (Stamp, 1961).
A fault scarp is one where the footwall surface is exposed; in other words, the feature must be very fresh, so that erosion has not destroyed all traces of the actual plane of the fault (Fig. 1). The latter is marked by slickensides, or striations, and polished surfaces (from “slick,” meaning smooth), intersected by minute steps (1–3 mm high) which drop away in the direction of movement (Fig. 2). The slickensides may be preserved in silica or in calcite. The direction of the slickenside striations shows the last motion on the fault, but since ...
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- Cotton, C. A. (1957) Geomorphic evidence and major structures associated with transcurrent faults in New Zealand. Rev. Géomorph. Dyn., Paris 8: pp. 155
- Davis, W. M. (1913) Nomenclature of surface forms on faulted structures. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 24: pp. 187-216
- Johnson, D. W. (1930) Geomorphologic aspects of rift valleys. Intern. Geol. Congr. 15th, South Africa 2: pp. 354-373
- Kennedy, W. Q. (1946) The Great Glen Fault. Quart. J. Geol. Soc., London 102: pp. 41 CrossRef
- Martonne, E. (1951) Traité de Géographie Physique. A. Colin, Paris
- Reiche, P. (1938) Recent fault scarps, Organ Mountain district, New Mexico. Am. J. Sci. 36: pp. 440-444 CrossRef
- Stamp, L. D. eds. (1961) A Glossary of Geographical Terms. Longmans, Green & Co., London
- Wooldridge, S. W., Morgan, R. S. (1937) The Physical Basis of Geography: An Outline of Geomorphology. Longmans, Green & Co., London
- Bajada; Basin-Range Landscape; Block Diagram; Cuesta; Drainage Patterns; Escarpment; Exhumed Landscape; Graben; Horst; Inversion of Topography (Relief); Piedmont.
- Fault scarp, fault-line scarp
- Reference Work Title
- Reference Work Part
- pp 346-351
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- Encyclopedia of Earth Science
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- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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- Reinhold Book Corporation
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