The sural nerve is formed from branches of the posterior tibial and common peroneal nerves. It passes adjacent to the Achilles tendon and the lateral malleolus, and then continues as the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve of the foot. In its course, the nerve may be compressed as it passes through the superficial sural aponeurosis, especially in association with an increase of muscle bulk or fibrous tissue, ganglia, or trauma. Patients develop calf pain overlying the sural nerve and numbness and pain over the dorsal lateral foot. Pain is worse at night and is worsened by exercise. Electrodiagnostic testing diagnoses the condition.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and other analgesics may provide pain relief.
Surgical decompression can relieve the symptoms of sural nerve entrapment.
Outcomes including residual symptoms, ability to return to sports, and patient satisfaction were favorable in the majority of patients who had undergone surgical treatment.