Reverse Transcriptase, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type‐1
Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of single‐stranded RNA to double‐stranded DNA. This process is known as reverse transcription or RNA‐dependent DNA polymerization. RT is essential for the replication and evolution of all retroviruses that contain RNA genomes including the human immunodeficiency virus type‐1 (HIV‐1). In this essay, HIV‐1 RT will be exemplified in order to discuss some important characteristics with regard to the structure and function of this enzyme and its role as a viral target for the development of antiretroviral drugs used for the treatment of patients with HIV infection.
RT is one of three enzymatic activities that is encoded by the HIV‐1 polymerase (pol) gene open‐reading frame. In mature viral particles, RT exists as a heterodimer that is made up of two protein subunits referred to as p51 and p66. The p51 subunit contains only the first 440 amino acid residues encoded by the RT gene. The larger p66 subunit ...
- Gotte, M, Wainberg, MA (2000) Biochemical mechanisms involved in overcoming HIV resistance to nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase. Drug Resist Updat 3: pp. 30-38 CrossRef
- Coffin, JM (1995) HIV population dynamics in vivo: implication for genetic variation, pathogenesis, and therapy. Science 267: pp. 483-489 CrossRef
- Yeni, PG, Hammer, SM, Carpenter, CC (2002) Antiretroviral treatment for adult HIV infection in 2002: updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society‐USA Panel. JAMA 288: pp. 222-235 CrossRef
- Squires, KE (2001) An introduction to nucleoside and nucleotide analogues. Antivir Ther 6: pp. 1-14
- Miller, V, Larder, BA (2001) Mutational patterns in the HIV genome and cross‐resistance following nucleoside and nucleotide analogue drug exposure. Antivir Ther 6: pp. 25-44
- Johnson, VA, Brun‐Vezinet, F, Clotet, B (2005) Update of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV‐1: 2005. Top HIV Med 13: pp. 51-57
- Quiñones‐Mateu, ME, Weber, J, Rangel, HR (2001) HIV‐1 Fitness and antiretroviral drug resistance. AIDS Rev 3: pp. 223-242
- Petrella, M, Wainberg, MA (2002) Might the M184V substitution in HIV‐1 RT confer clinical benefit?. AIDS Rev 4: pp. 224-232
- Reverse Transcriptase, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type‐1
- Reference Work Title
- Encyclopedic Reference of Genomics and Proteomics in Molecular Medicine
- pp 1661-1664
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Copyright Holder
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- eBook Packages
To view the rest of this content please follow the download PDF link above.