Surveying, electronic distance measurement

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In today's sophisticated world, speed and accuracy are the key words that have caused members of surveying and navigation communities to seek the solution to their everyday undertakings from the ever-expanding fields of electronics and electro-optics. Construction surveyors, land surveyors, photogrammetrists, geodesists, geophysicists, hydrographers, and navigators need proper instruments for the execution of their practical or theoretical goals. Worldwide industry has entered into a race and competition not seen before to supply these instruments. The result is the utilization of a multitude of principles, designs, sizes, and shapes with an equal variety of prices.

Distance, either instantaneous, continuous, or distance difference, is the basic unit for all measurements described here. The great variety of possibilities offered and problems created by the modern state of the art of electronic surveying is best understood by exploring the following aspects: applications, electronics, e ...