- Meredith L. Jones
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Members of the phylum Annelida are wormlike animals that usually possess an extensive internal cavity, extending the length of the body, subdivided into consecutive discrete segments. The segments may be separated from one another internally by septa and indicated externally by outgrowths from the body wall (parapodia) and/or by bundles of bristles (setae).
Three major groups of the phylum Annelida are recognized: The class Polychaeta (polychaetes), almost exclusively marine animals, is characterized by the presence of bundles of many setae on each segment, by heads provided with sensory structures, and by separate sexes. The class Oligochaeta (earthworms) consists mainly of terrestrial and freshwater forms, possessing few setae per segment, lacking sensory structures on their heads, and reproducing as cross-fertilizing hermaphrodites. The class Hirudinea (leeches), primarily found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats (although a few are parasitic on mar ...
- Barnes, R. D. (1968) Invertebrate Zoology. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia
- Clark, R. B. (1964) Dynamics in Metazoan Evolution. Clarendon Press, Oxford
- Dales, R. P. (1963) Annelids. Hutchinson University Library, London
- Day, J. (1967) Errantia; Pt.. Polychaeta of South Africa, Pt.. London British Museum of Natural History, Londonpp. 878
- Mann, K. H. eds. (1962) Leeches (Hirudinea), Their Structure, Physiology, Ecology, and Embryology. Pergamon Press, New York
- Smith, R. I., Carlton, J. T. eds. (1975) Light's Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates of the Central California Coast. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles
- Stephenson, J. (1930) The Oligochaeta. Oxford University Press, New York
- Coastal Fauna; Intertidal Flats; Nemertina; Platyhelminthes; Tidal Flat.
- Reference Work Title
- Beaches and Coastal Geology
- Reference Work Part
- pp 38-39
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- Series Title
- Encyclopedia of Earth Science
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- Springer US
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- Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company
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