- Meredith L. Jones
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Members of the phylum Annelida are wormlike animals that usually possess an extensive internal cavity, extending the length of the body, subdivided into consecutive discrete segments. The segments may be separated from one another internally by septa and indicated externally by outgrowths from the body wall (parapodia) and/or by bundles of bristles (setae).
Three major groups of the phylum Annelida are recognized: The class Polychaeta (polychaetes), almost exclusively marine animals, is characterized by the presence of bundles of many setae on each segment, by heads provided with sensory structures, and by separate sexes. The class Oligochaeta (earthworms) consists mainly of terrestrial and freshwater forms, possessing few setae per segment, lacking sensory structures on their heads, and reproducing as cross-fertilizing hermaphrodites. The class Hirudinea (leeches), primarily found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats (although a few are parasitic on mar ...
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- Clark, R. B., 1964. Dynamics in Metazoan Evolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 313p.
- Dales, R. P., 1963. Annelids. London: Hutchinson University Library, 200p.
- Day, J., 1967. Polychaeta of South Africa, Pt. I, Errantia; Pt. II, Sedentaria. London: London British Museum of Natural History, 878p.
- Mann, K. H., ed., 1962. Leeches (Hirudinea), Their Structure, Physiology, Ecology, and Embryology. New York: Pergamon Press, 201p.
- Smith, R. I., and Carlton, J. T., eds., 1975. Light's Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates of the Central California Coast. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 716 p.
- Stephenson, J., 1930. The Oligochaeta. New York: Oxford University Press, 978 p.
- Coastal Fauna; Intertidal Flats; Nemertina; Platyhelminthes; Tidal Flat.
- Reference Work Title
- Beaches and Coastal Geology
- Reference Work Part
- pp 38-39
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Series Title
- Encyclopedia of Earth Science
- Series ISSN
- Springer US
- Copyright Holder
- Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company
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