2006, pp 920-930

The Genus Psychrobacter

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Introduction

The genus Psychrobacter includes bacteria which are Gram negative, spherical to rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, chemoheterotrophic, nonmotile, cold-adapted and osmotolerant. Psychrobacter species are primarily isolated from cold to warm, slightly to highly saline ecosystems ranging from glacial ice to sea-ice to chilled meat and fish to clinical samples (Table 1). The genus has only recently become better known following recent intensive bacterial isolation studies of various environments accompanied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From these studies it is clear that Psychrobacter is a widespread and evolutionarily successful group of bacteria, the biology of which may provide important insights into environmental adaptation and survival.

Taxonomy and Phylogeny

The genus Psychrobacter was originally described by Juni and Heym (1986) and included at that time one species, Psychrobacter immobilis. Psychrobacter immobilis strains were identified by a simple genetic transformation pla