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Pharmacogenomics

Volume 1015 of the series Methods in Molecular Biology pp 3-22

Date:

Pharmacogenomics: Historical Perspective and Current Status

  • Rosane CharlabAffiliated withOffice of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration
  • , Lei ZhangAffiliated withOffice of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration

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Abstract

Pharmacogenomics and its predecessor pharmacogenetics study the contribution of genetic factors to the interindividual variability in drug efficacy and safety. One of the major goals of pharmacogenomics is to tailor drugs to individuals based on their genetic makeup and molecular profile. From early findings in the 1950s uncovering inherited deficiencies in drug metabolism that explained drug-related adverse events, to nowadays genome-wide approaches assessing genetic variation in multiple genes, pharmacogenomics has come a long way. The evolution of pharmacogenomics has paralleled the evolution of genotyping technologies, the completion of the human genome sequencing and the HapMap project. Despite these advances, the implementation of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice has yet been limited. Here we present an overview of the history and current applications of pharmacogenomics in patient selection, dosing, and drug development with illustrative examples of these categories. Some of the challenges in the field and future perspectives are also presented.

Key words

Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenomics Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Polymorphism Adverse event Targeted therapy Drug metabolizing enzyme Drug transporter