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Platelets and Megakaryocytes

Volume 788 of the series Methods in Molecular Biology pp 341-366

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Endogenous Inhibitory Mechanisms and the Regulation of Platelet Function

  • Chris I. JonesAffiliated withInstitute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading
  • , Natasha E. BarrettAffiliated withInstitute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading
  • , Leonardo A. MoraesAffiliated withInstitute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading
  • , Jonathan M. GibbinsAffiliated withInstitute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading Email author 
  • , Denise E. JacksonAffiliated withHealth Innovations Research Institute, School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University

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Abstract

The response of platelets to changes in the immediate environment is always a balance between activatory and inhibitory signals, the cumulative effect of which is either activation or quiescence. This is true of platelets in free flowing blood and of their regulation of haemostasis and thrombosis. In this review, we consider the endogenous inhibitory mechanisms that combine to regulate platelet activation. These include those derived from the endothelium (nitric oxide, prostacyclin, CD39), inhibitory receptors on the surface of platelets (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1, G6b-B – including evidence for the role of Ig-ITIM superfamily members in the negative regulation of ITAM-associated GPVI platelet–collagen interactions and GPCR-mediated signalling and in positive regulation of “outside-in” integrin αIIbβ3-mediated signalling), intracellular inhibitory receptors (retinoic X receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, liver X receptor), and emerging inhibitory pathways (canonical Wnt signalling, Semaphorin 3A, endothelial cell specific adhesion molecule, and junctional adhesion molecule-A).

Key words

Platelet immunoreceptors Platelet inhibition Thrombus formation Platelet–collagen interactions Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activatory motif Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif