Date: 15 Nov 2010

Cell Sheet Technology for Tissue Engineering: The Self-Assembly Approach Using Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells

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Abstract

In the past years, adipose tissue has spurred a wide interest, not only as a source of adult multipotent stem cells but also as a highly eligible tissue for reconstructive surgery procedures. Tissue engineering is one field of regenerative medicine progressing at great strides in part due to its important use of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs). The development of diversified technologies combining ASCs with various biomaterials has lead to the reconstruction of numerous types of tissue-engineered substitutes such as bone, cartilage, and adipose tissues from rodent, porcine, or human ASCs. We have recently achieved the reconstruction of connective and adipose tissues composed entirely of cultured human ASCs and their secreted endogenous extracellular matrix components by a methodology known as the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering. The latter is based on the stimulation of ASCs to secrete and assemble matrix components in culture, leading to the production of cell sheets that can be manipulated and further assembled into thicker multilayer tissues. In this chapter, protocols to generate both reconstructed connective and adipocyte-containing tissues using the self-assembly approach are described in detail. The methods include amplification and cell banking of human ASCs, as well as culture protocols for the production of individual stromal and adipose sheets, which are the building blocks for the reconstruction of multilayered human connective and adipose tissues, respectively.