We describe in this chapter the use of oligonucleotide or peptide microarrays (arrays) based on microfluidic chips. Specifically, three major applications are presented: (1) microRNA/small RNA detection using a microRNA detection chip, (2) protein binding and function analysis using epitope, kinase substrate, or phosphopeptide chips, and (3) protein-binding analysis using oligonucleotide chips. These diverse categories of customizable arrays are based on the same biochip platform featuring a significant amount of flexibility in the sequence design to suit a wide range of research needs. The protocols of the array applications play a critical role in obtaining high quality and reliable results. Given the comprehensive and complex nature of the array experiments, the details presented in this chapter is intended merely as a useful information source of reference or a starting point for many researchers who are interested in genomeor proteome-scale studies of proteins and nucleic acids and their interactions.