Birds of a feather? Peers, delinquency, and risk
Purchase on Springer.com
$29.95 / €24.95 / £19.95*
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
“I know a lot of people think birds of a feather flock together. But that’s not necessarily true.” Benjamin, a 24 year old African American male, described how some of his friends were drug dealers and gang members who were in and out of jail while others were academically successful and ended up in college. Much social science research on youth, peers, and violence has suggested that birds of a feather flock together, as reflected in the common finding that association with delinquent peers is a risk factor for youth violence. In this chapter, we will unpack this statement and show how the lived experiences of youth growing up in a diverse low-income community of Oakland, California complicate this claim.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Alameda County Public Health Department. (2006). Violence in Oakland: A public health crisis.
- Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York, NY: WW Norton.
- Bellair PE. Social interaction and community rime: Examining the importance of neighbor networks. Criminology.. 1997;35(4):677–703. CrossRef
- Bettie J. Women without class: girls, race and identity. Berkeley: University of California Press; 2003.
- Bourdieu P. The forms of capital. In: Richardson J, editor. Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood; 1986. p. 241–258.
- California Department of Corrections. (2000).
- California Department of Education. (2009). Dropouts by Grade Oakland Unified 2008–2009. [Data file]. Retrieved from http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010, May 31). Youth violence: Risk and protective factors. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/youthviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html
- Community and Economic Development Agency, Oakland, California. (2010).
- Discovery Channel (2009). Gang Wars: Oakland [Documentary film].
- Douglas M. Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York: Praeger; 1966. CrossRef
- Douglas M. Risk as a forensic resource. Daedalus. 1990;119(4):1–16.
- Douglas M. Risk and blame: Essays in cultural theory. New York: Routledge; 1992. CrossRef
- Duster, T. (2010). The diversity project: Final report (2nd ed.). University of California, Berkeley: Institute for the Study of Social Change.
- Eckert P. Jocks and burnouts: Social categories and identity in the high school. New York, NY: Teachers College Press; 1989.
- Gilmore R. Golden gulag: Prisons, surplus, crisis, and opposition in globalizing California. Berkeley: University of California Press; 2007.
- Granovetter M. The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology.. 1973;78(6):1360–1380. CrossRef
- Granovetter M. The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological Theory. 1983;1:201–233. CrossRef
- Gutiérrez K, Baquedano-López P, Tejeda C. Rethinking diversity: Hybridity and hybrid language practices in the third space. Mind, Culture, & Activity. 1999;6(4):286–303. CrossRef
- Hagan J. Social networks, gender, and immigrant incorporation: Resources and constraints. American Sociological Review. 1998;63(1):55–67. CrossRef
- Haynie DL, Osgood DW. Reconsidering peers and delinquency: How do peers matter? Social Forces. 2005;84(2):1109–1130. CrossRef
- Hébert Y, Lee JW, Sun SX, Berti C. Relational citizenship as social networks: immigrant youth’s maps of their friendships. Encounters on Education. 2003;4:83–106.
- Institute of Behavioral Sciences. Youth interview schedule: Denver youth survey. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado; 1987.
- Institute of Urban and Regional Development (IURD). Planning for the lower San Antonio neighborhood. Casey Foundation Making Connections Planning Committee: Prepared for the Annie E; 2004.
- Jeung R. Faith-Based, Multi-Ethnic Tenant Organizing: The Oak Park Story. In: Hondagneu- Sotelo P, editor. Religion and Social Justice for Immigrants. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 2006. p. 59–73.
- Jones N. Between good and ghetto: African American girls and inner-city violence. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 2009.
- Klein M, Maxson C. Street gang patterns and policies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2006. CrossRef
- Lewis A. Race in the schoolyard: Negotiating the color line in classrooms and communities. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 2003.
- Lewis-Charp, H., Yu, H.C., & Friedlander, D. (2004). The influence of intergroup relations on school engagement: Two cases. In M.A. Gibson, P. Gandara, J. P. Koyama (Eds.), School connections : U.S. Mexican youth, peers, and school achievement. (107–128) New York: Teachers College Press.
- Lichterman P. Seeing structure happen: Theory-driven participant observation. In: Klandermans B, Staggenborg S, editors. Social Movement Research. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 2002.
- Luker K. Salsa dancing into the social sciences: Research in an age of info-glut. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2008.
- Lustig DF. Of Kwanzaa, Cinco de Mayo, and whispering: The need for intercultural education. Anthropology and Education Quarterly. 1997;28:574–592. CrossRef
- MacLeod J. Ain’t no makin’ it: Aspirations and attainment in a low-income neighborhood. Boulder: Westview Press; 1987.
- Maly M. Beyond segregation: Multiracial and multiethnic neighborhoods in the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press; 2005.
- Marech, R. (2002, May 31). Of race and place: San Antonio/Oakland – Flavors meld in community east of lake. San Francisco Chronicle.
- McPherson JM, Smith-Lovin L. Homophily in voluntary organizations: Status distance and the composition of face-to-face groups. American Sociological Review. 1987;52:370–379. CrossRef
- Meece M. June 1). The New York Times: Job outlook for teenagers worsens; 2010.
- Miles MB, Huberman AM. Qualitative Data Analysis. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1994.
- Multisite Violence Prevention Project. (2004). Description of measures: cohort-wide student survey. Available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA. (Unpublished)
- Oakland Unified School District. (2010). California healthy kids survey: 2009–2010 secondary main report.
- Olsen L. Made in America: Immigrant students in our public schools. New York, NY: The New Press; 1997.
- Ossei-Owusu, S. and N. Lindahl. (2010). Seesaw injustice: At the interface of underpolicing and overpolicing in marginalized neighborhoods. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Society of Criminology.
- Payne YA, Brown TM. The educational experiences of street-life-oriented black boys: How black boys use street life as a site of resilience in high school. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 2010;26(3):316–338. CrossRef
- Rios V. The hyper-criminalization of Black and Latino youth in the era of mass incarceration. Souls. 2006;8(2):40–54. CrossRef
- Rios V. Punished: Policing the lives of Black and Latino Boys. New York, NY: New York University Press; 2011.
- Rose N. Government and control. British Journal of Criminology. 2000;40(2):321–339. CrossRef
- Self R. American Babylon: Race and the struggle for postwar Oakland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 2005.
- Shaw CR, McKay HD. Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 1942.
- Simon J. Governing through crime: How the war on crime transformed American democracy and created a culture of fear. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.
- Small ML. Unanticipated gains: Origins of network inequality in everyday life. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2009. CrossRef
- Sung, K. (2008). Theorizing race within the politics of culture: The reconstitution of “Blackness” in student discourses. UC Berkeley: Institute for the Study of Social Change. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2sw8v9bf
- Sung, K. (2011). ‘Hella ghetto!’: Constructions of the ghetto space, school and subject in youth discourse. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Educational Research Association.
- Thornberry TP. Toward an interactional theory of delinquency. Criminology. 1987;25:863–891. CrossRef
- Thornberry TP, Lizotte AJ, Krohn MD, Farnworth M, Jang SJ. Delinquent peers, beliefs, and delinquent behavior: A longitudinal test of interactional theory. Criminology. 1994;32:47–83. CrossRef
- Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive schooling U.S. — Mexican Youth and the politics of caring. New York: SUNY Press.
- Warr M. Parents, peers, and delinquency. Social Forces. 1993;22:247–264.
- Warr M. Companions in crime: The social aspects of criminal conduct. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2002. CrossRef
- Weiss R. Learning from strangers: The art and method of qualitative interview studies. New York: Free Press; 1994.
- Willis P. Learning to labor: How working class kids get working class jobs. New York: Columbia University Press; 1982.
- Younis M. Chapter 11: San Antonio and Fruitvale. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research.. 1998;4(2):221–244.
About this Chapter
- Birds of a feather? Peers, delinquency, and risk
- Book Title
- Education and the Risk Society
- Book Subtitle
- Theories, Discourse and Risk Identities in Education Contexts
- pp 203-223
- Online ISBN
- Series Title
- Contexts of Education
- Series Volume
- Copyright Holder
- eBook Packages
To view the rest of this content please follow the download PDF link above.