Progress in the Biological Control of Black Flies with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, with Emphasis on Temperate Climates

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Abstract

In contrast to the problems of onchocerciasis in the tropics, black flies in temperate climates are not known to transmit human diseases. This is not to say, however, that these flies do not cause medical problems in temperate regions. Black fly bites can induce an allergic response in sensitive individuals; skin inflammation, nausea, headache, and fever are possible consequences. Scratching the itchy scab that forms after the bite can result in localized bacterial infection. In general, however, the pest status of black flies in temperate climates does not stem from these medical problems, but rather from the annoyance caused by their flying and biting.