Student-Problem Chart: An Essential Tool for SLOA

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Abstract

This chapter introduces the concepts of the student-problem chart (SP chart) as a tool to support implementation of assessment for learning. In essence, the SP chart is a matrix of students’ responses against set items in an assessment where the rows are rearranged in descending order of student ability from the top of the matrix and the columns in ascending order of item difficulty from the left. Using the assumption that a more able student is more likely than a less able student to answer any item correctly and that an easier item is more likely to be answered correctly than a more difficult item by any student, modified caution indices can be computed to reflect the extent to which the student and item response patterns deviate from the expected pattern. The SP Xpress software outputs the SP chart, the modified caution indices, and other statistics to support teachers in diagnostic assessment for enhanced student learning.