This chapter analyzes the main research trends on production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic materials. The main features of different pretreatment and detoxification methods are presented. The importance of process integration to simplify the overall process and improve the conversion of biomass into ethanol is discussed. Strategies for microbial strain development are disclosed in the framework of such integrated processes like simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation and consolidated bioprocessing. The main challenges to fully develop the biomass-to-ethanol process are highlighted. Finally, the need of integrating the research efforts on molecular techniques and process integration is recognized.