Date: 01 Jun 2012


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The general arrangement of the elements of any surface analysis instrument (here electron spectrometer) is shown in Fig.1.2. Figure 2.1a shows a cross section of a typical XPS instrument and Fig.2.1b that of a typical AES spectrometer. The main parts are (1) the specimen on a sample holder with x–y–z movement stage, (2) an excitation source (X-ray source for XPS, electron gun for AES), (3) the electron energy analyzer with detector, and (4) an auxiliary ion gun. Whereas these elements are mounted within a vacuum chamber, the detection and steering electronics are placed outside in the laboratory room.