Obtención de un Relleno Óseo a Base de Fosfato Tricálcico y Quitosana con Refuerzo de Celulosa

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Abstract

Tricalcium Phosphate cements are biocompatible, bioactive, bioabsorbable, osteoconductive, non-toxic materials that have chemical stability and a high mechanical strength, among others, and are used to fill bone deficiencies, resulting from trauma, tumors or abnormal development.

This thesis focuses on the study, development and characterization of bone filler based on Tricalcium Phosphate and Chitosan with Cellulose reinforcement. The objective is to obtain the best combination of materials to maximize the compressive strength of bone fill.

To carry out this research, statistical design of experiments was used. This tool was used to determine which combinations maximize the load resistance. To carry out the experiment, eight (8) samples of different treatments were made, each with six (6) replicates for a total of 48 samples. Each of the samples was characterized in terms of pH (ASTM D 6739), in mechanical terms (ASTM F 451) and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

For the analysis of data obtained in the compression test was used Minitab software. The statistical method used was the variance analysis, ANOVA, for a 24 factorial design, which studies the effect of four factors considered two levels each. The factors used were Chitosan, Cellulose, Tricalcium Phosphate and the rate at which the compression test was done. For each combination were taken into account two replicates.

At the end of the analysis, the results obtained show that there were needed high levels of Chitosan (5.0 g), low levels of Cellulose (1.5 g), high Tricalcium Phosphate levels (2.7 g) and a speed of 4.0 mm/min, so that the mechanical properties are optimized. It was also found that the material has an acid pH; and that the pores found in the best samples are not homogeneous and have a minimum size of 141.74 nm.