A Comparison of the Haptic and Visual Horizontal-Vertical Illusion

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Participants attempted to create squares of four different sizes in two orientations in one of three modality conditions - physically adjusting a tangible template while blindfolded (haptic condition), directing the experimenter to adjust the template (vision condition), or adjusting the template themselves without the blindfold (mixed-mode condition). The side of square was robustly overestimated, resulting in a rectangle elongated in the horizontal direction - evidence for the horizontal-vertical illusion. There was no difference in the illusion’s strength as a function of modality conditions or orientation.