On the splitting of the Roentgen and optical terms caused by the electron rotation and on the intensity of the cesium lines

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Abstract

1. The purpose of this paper is to show that FERMI’s potential allows one to determine a priori and with very good approximation all the energy levels of heavy atoms. This also allows one to calculate with remarkable accuracy, considering its statistical character, the splitting of the various terms. This is of great importance considering that one could not apply SOMMERFELD’s relativistic formula to these splittings, as the phenomenon goes well beyond the scheme of the fine-structure theory. Indeed it is well known that one has to use the assumption of the rotating electron which by now has lost its hypothetical character and appears to be well founded on a solid theoretical basis as Dirac’s last paper(1) has shown. Our calculations will be applied to the Roentgen levels of the 3M term of gadolinium (Z = 64) and of uranium (Z = 92) and, in the optical case, to the P terms of cesium (Z = 55).