Understanding Procedural Knowledge for Solving Arithmetic Task by Externalization
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- Miwa K., Terai H., Shibayama K. (2016) Understanding Procedural Knowledge for Solving Arithmetic Task by Externalization. In: Micarelli A., Stamper J., Panourgia K. (eds) Intelligent Tutoring Systems. ITS 2016. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 9684. Springer, Cham
Students build cognitive models for solving a crypt-arithmetic task in a learning environment that enables them to formally describe various types of procedural knowledge in a group learning setting in which each student is allowed to refer to the procedural rules described by the other group members. Experimental evaluation showed that: (1) three-quarters of participants successfully constructed valid models with the system, and (2) participants learned to describe procedural knowledge more precisely not only for the training task (crypt-arithmetic task) but also for a transfer task (bug identification for a multi-column subtraction problem).