Intrauterine Insemination as a Treatment of Immunological Infertility in the Male

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Abstract

Antibodies against spermatozoa membrane antigens can be demonstrated in high titres(> 64) in serum in three to four percent of men from infertile couples1,2,3 and in close to 10 percent of the men from couples with otherwise unexplained infertility.2 The antibodies which can be revealed by the Kibrick gelatine agglutination test, immobilize spermatozoa in the presence of complement. In most men with agglutinating antibodies in serum, the antibodies can also be demonstrated in seminal plasma2 where they may cause spontaneous agglutination in the ejaculate. Spermatozoa antibodies appear not to affect spermatogenesis, and semen analysis in men with autoantibodies to spermatozoa may reveal completely normal findings with normal sperm counts and a percentage of motile spermatozoa within the normal range. However, Fjällbrant and Obrant4 found a significant reduction of the motility in men who had autoantibodies.