1970, pp 142-157

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy and Its Application to Chemistry

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For a sample to absorb radiofrequency power due to nuclear quadrupole resonance, the following basic criteria must be satisfied:

  1. 1.

    The sample must contain nuclei with an electric quadrupole moment.

  2. 2.

    These quadrupolar nuclei must be situated in an electric field gradient—usually the result of neighboring atoms in a molecule.

  3. 3.

    The sample must be in the solid state—liquids or gases must be frozen.

  4. 4.

    For a signal to be observed in practice, the sample must be at least partly crystalline.