Post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications

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Transcription and translation are regarded as the central events in gene expression. However, they are rarely sufficient on their own to result in the synthesis of a functional protein. Two important additional processes are needed. The first is mRNA processing orpost-transcriptional modification. It occurs between transcription and translation in eukaryotes, but does not occur in bacteria. The process involves a series of modifications that the RNA transcript (hnRNA) must undergo before it can be translated (Fig. 5.1). The second process is protein processing orpost-translational modification. This second type of modification occurs in all organisms and converts the polypeptide synthesized by translation into a functional protein.