Vinegar

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Abstract

Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid produced by a two-stage fermentation process. In the first stage, fermentable sugars are converted into ethanol by the action of yeasts, normally strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while in the second stage, bacteria of the genus Acetobacter oxidize the ethanol to acetic acid. An outline of the overall process is presented in Figure 1.1.