Lightning and NO X Production in Global Models

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In the upper troposphere lightning is the major contributor to the production of nitric oxide, which is a critical precursor gas for ozone production. It is therefore important that this source is simulated with a high accuracy in global chemical transport models and global chemistry/climate models. This chapter reviews development of the parameterization of lightning-produced nitric oxide in such models and the various components required such as flash rate distribution, NO production per flash and its vertical distribution. The results from simulations with different global models, the uncertainties and the impact on ozone are discussed.