2008, pp 127-135

How Living Organisms Detect Very Low Doses? A New Approach to Homeopathy and Hormesis

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The molecular strategy of integrating cellular processes is based on the controlling mechanisms of the two major opposing pathways: catabolism and anabolism. Owing to this, there is a constant exchange of substrates and products of metabolism, which provide cells with indispensable elements for their survival in specific environmental conditions. The control of speed and direction of transformations in a cell is based on protein systems. They combine into complexes, such as receptors and multi-enzymatic complexes, thanks to which the signal gets transmitted both from the gene to the protein and then to the environment and the other way, having a precise effect on the regulation and efficiency of all cellular processes (Welch, 1995; Welch and Clegg, 1987). The transmission proceeds gradually by electron exchange at the level of chemical bonds in a series of cyclic or cascade reactions catalyzed by specialized protein systems, which, as a consequence of receiving information in this way, change their spatial conformation (Ho, 2005).