Evolution of the Proximal Third Phalanx in Oligocene-Miocene Equids, and the Utility of Phalangeal Indices in Phylogeny Reconstruction

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The late Oligocene – early Miocene of Florida contain Miohippus, Archaeohippus, Anchitherium, and Parahippus, equid genera that possess and define many of the character state transitions that occurred between advanced anchitheriine and primitive equine horses. Although much previous research regarding Archaeohippus has emphasized its uniqueness, the genus is equally interesting for those characters that suggest its affinities to other taxa.