Chapter

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 241

Volume 241 of the series Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology pp 139-160

Date:

Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants

  • D. K. GuptaAffiliated withGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS) Email author 
  • , S. ChatterjeeAffiliated withDefence Research Laboratory, DRDO
  • , S. DattaAffiliated withDefence Research Laboratory, DRDO
  • , A. V. VoroninaAffiliated withDepartment of Radiochemistry and Applied Ecology, Physical Technology Institute, Ural Federal University
  • , C. WaltherAffiliated withGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS)

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Abstract

Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

Keywords

Radionuclide Radio-phytoremediation Rhizosphere Metal transporters Uranium Caesium Radium