Linnartz J.P.M.G., van Dijk M. (1998) Analysis of the Sensitivity Attack against Electronic Watermarks in Images. In: Information Hiding. IH 1998. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 1525. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
In some applications of electronic watermarks, the device that detects whether content contains a watermark or not is in public domain. Attackers can misuse such detector as an oracle that reveals up to one bit of information about the watermark in each experiment. An information-theoretical analysis of the information leakage is provided, and a method is proposed to reduce the information leakage by orders of magnitude.