Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Materials Based on Organophosphorus Derivatives

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Because P-O-Metal and P-C linkages are quite stable, organophosphorus derivatives offer a general alternative to silicon-based coupling in the field of organic/inorganic hybrid materials, covering a wide range of application: ion exchange, proton conductors, catalysts, sensors, membranes etc. This review surveys two classes of hybrid solids in which the organic part is introduced through phosphorus groups. In the first class (which includes metal phosphonates, metal phosphinates, and related mono- and dialkylphosphates) the organic and inorganic parts are linked in the repeated structural unit ordered in a crystal network (molecular crystals, one-, two-, or three-dimensional solids). The second class corresponds to inorganic substrates (mainly metal oxides) modified by organophosphorus groups that are grafted on the surface; alternatively organophosphorus groups may be incorporated into metal oxides by sol-gel processing.