Annual International Cryptology Conference

CRYPTO 1998: Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO '98 pp 424-441

Zero-knowledge proofs for finite field arithmetic, or: Can zero-knowledge be for free?

  • Ronald Cramer
  • Ivan Damgård
Conference paper

DOI: 10.1007/BFb0055745

Volume 1462 of the book series Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS)


We present a general method for constructing commitment schemes based on existence of q-one way group homomorphisms, in which elements in a finite prime field GF(q) can be committed to. A receiver of commitments can non-interactively check whether committed values satisfy linear equations. Multiplicative relations can be verified interactively with exponentially small error, while communicating only a constant number of commitments. Particular assumptions sufficient for our commitment schemes include: the RSA assumption, hardness of discrete log in a prime order group, and polynomial security of Diffie-Hellman encryption.

Based on these commitments, we give efficient zero-knowledge proofs and arguments for arithmetic circuits over finite prime fields, namely given such a circuit, show in zero-knowledge that inputs can be selected leading to a given output. For a field GF(q), where q is an m-bit prime, a circuit of size O(m), and error probability 2−m, our protocols require communication of O(m2) bits. We then look at the Boolean Circuit Satisfiability problem and give non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs and arguments with preprocessing. In the proof stage, the prover can prove any circuit of size n he wants by sending only one message of size O(n) bits. As a final application, we show that Shamirs (Shens) interactive proof system for the (IP-complete) QBF problem can be transformed to a zero-knowledge proof system with the same asymptotic communication complexity and number of rounds.

Download to read the full conference paper text

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald Cramer
    • 1
  • Ivan Damgård
    • 2
  1. 1.ETH ZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.BRICS (Basic Research in Computer Science, center of the Danish National Research Foundation)Aarhus UniversityDenmarck