Chapter

Telocytes

Volume 913 of the series Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology pp 41-49

Date:

Extracellular Microvesicles (ExMVs) in Cell to Cell Communication: A Role of Telocytes

  • Mariusz Z. RatajczakAffiliated withStem Cell Institute at James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville Email author 
  • , Daniel RatajczakAffiliated withStem Cell Institute at James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville
  • , Daniel PedziwiatrAffiliated withStem Cell Institute at James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville

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Abstract

There are several mechanisms by which cells communicate with each other. Evidence accumulates that the evolutionary oldest mechanisms of cell-cell communication involves extracellular microvesicles (ExMVs). Generally, these circular membrane fragments enriched for mRNA, miRNA, proteins, and bioactive lipids are released by exocytosis from endosomal compartment or are directly formed by budding from cell surface membranes. ExMVs from endosomal compartment called exosomes are smaller in size ~100 nM as compared to larger ones released from cell membranes that are in size up to 1 μM. In this chapter we will present an emerging link between ExMVs and recently identified novel cell-cell communication network involving a new type of cell known as telocyte. Mounting evidence accumulates that telocytes mediate several of their biological effects in several organs by releasing ExMVs enriched in mRNA, miRNA, proteins, and several biological mediators to the target cells.

Keywords

Extracellular microvesicles (ExMVs) Telocytes Exosomes Ectosomes Multivesicular cargo Cell-cell communication Horizontal transfer of mRNA Membrane lipid rafts