Chapter

Bacterial Control of Mosquitoes & Black Flies

pp 134-160

Activity, Field Efficacy, and Use of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against Mosquitoes

  • Mir S. Mulla

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Abstract

In recent years, the use of synthetic organophosphate insecticides for the control of mosquito larvae has been on the decline in California (Mulla 1976) and elsewhere. This drastic decline is primarily due to the development of resistance in mosquito larvae, mammalian toxicity, environmental considerations, and the use of biological control agents such as larvivorous fish and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (B. t i.). In the past decade, research on the development and use of biological control agents in vector control programs has been greatly stimulated and expanded thanks to the efforts of the United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). This agency has been involved in providing extramural funds for basic and applied research and coordinating research activities in the area of biological control of vectors. The Scientific Working Group and the Steering Committee on Biological Control of Vectors were established in 1976 to provide technical evaluation and to foster current and future direction for relevant research in this area. These bodies have been instrumental in promoting research on the development and wide use of new and currently available biological control agents for the management and suppression of disease vectors as well as pest species affecting the quality of life and well-being of millions of people around the world.