The Partial Past

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In today’s vision agro-ecosystems of the past may exhibit more stability than they had in reality. Remnants of the past can be seen off the main track. They usually boil down to positive mass selection, with some partial resistance involved. Crop and cultivar mixtures provided stability. R-gene resistance was found, promoted and exploited. All noses pointed to the same direction. High external input agriculture led to failures of monogenic resistance, and some noses turned to other directions. The implicit results of the past were given explicit scientific identity. Various approaches were developed with a confusing richness of terms. Durability can be ensured by adequate resistance management. Selection for durability through partial resistance seems easiest. Selection for stability of agro-ecosystems, enhancing parasite and predator effects, may be the next step.