Chapter

Photonic Crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century

Volume 563 of the series NATO Science Series pp 305-320

Photonic Crystal Fibers: Effective-Index and Band-Gap Guidance

  • Douglas C. AllanAffiliated withSullivan Park, Corning Incorporated
  • , James A. WestAffiliated withSullivan Park, Corning Incorporated
  • , James C. FajardoAffiliated withSullivan Park, Corning Incorporated
  • , Michael T. GallagherAffiliated withSullivan Park, Corning Incorporated
  • , Karl W. KochAffiliated withSullivan Park, Corning Incorporated
  • , Nicholas F. BorrelliAffiliated withSullivan Park, Corning Incorporated

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Abstract

Conventional telecommunication optical waveguide glass fiber is the backbone of the internet revolution. This highly optimized and highly transparent waveguide consists of a higher refractive index core glass inside a lower index clad glass. Light is localized in the core by total internal reflection (TIR) at the core/clad boundary. The transmission distance between amplifiers of today’s fibers, about 80–120 km, is limited in part by the small but nonzero absorption and scattering of the fiber. Longer transmission lengths could be possible by increasing the power at each amplifier, but this is limited by optical nonlinearity of the glass in the fiber.