Photonic Band Structures

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Abstract

The zero point energy associated with each mode of the electromagnetic spectrum is the source of quantum fluctuations that have physically measurable effects; this field of research has been called quantum electrodynamics. The origins of quantum electrodynamics is traced to the early contributions of Planck and Einstein on Blackbody radiation, but modern developments have clarified the role that vacuum fluctuations play in the atomic and molecular phenomena[1, 2]. The topic of this school attests to the significance of the field and its continued growth and evolution. It has not remained only a laboratory curiosity, but like its historic beginnings, it continues to find technological applications.