Chapter

Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology

Volume 101 of the series Experientia Supplementum pp 437-457

Date:

Genetic Variability in Molecular Responses to Chemical Exposure

  • Chirag J. PatelAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine, Stanford University
  • , Mark R. CullenAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine, Stanford University Email author 

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Abstract

Individuals differ in their response to environmental exposures. In the following, we describe examples and paradigms of studying heritable differences in response to exposure—commonly known as “gene–environment interaction” or “ecogenetics”—and their relation to disease etiology and susceptibility. Our discussion is framed in three parts. In the first, we describe replicated examples of studies that have typified the field, single genetic variant, and exposure associations to disease. Second, we describe how studies have scaled up search for interaction using genome-wide measurement modalities, bioinformatics, and model organisms. Finally, we discuss a more comprehensive representation of chemical exposures as the “envirome” and how we may use the envirome to examine interplay between genetics and the environment.

Keywords

Gene–environment interactions Pharmacogenetics Ecogenetics Single nucleotide polymorphism (Non-)synonymous variant Phase I/II biotransformation Paraoxonase Epigenetic variant Genome-wide association study Gene–environment-wide interaction study Environment-wide association study Comparative Toxicogenomics Database Systems genetics Envirome Toxome