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During the past fifty to sixty years, tremendous advances have been made in the laboratory preparation of complex, naturally occurring organic substances. As early as the first part of the present century, pioneering work was being carried out in various laboratories, and among the early successes in this vastly challenging field may be cited the synthesis of numerous monoterpenes; alkaloids, including nicotine, dihydroquinine and the simpler opium bases; porphyrins, including the blood pigments; the common hexoses, as well as many amino acids and peptides.