Chapter

Isolated Liver Perfusion for Hepatic Tumors

Volume 147 of the series Recent Results in Cancer Research pp 107-119

Isolated Hepatic Perfusion with Tumor Necrosis Factor α and Melphalan: Experimental Studies in Pigs and Phase I Data from Humans

  • M. R. de VriesAffiliated withDepartment of Surgical Oncology, Dr. Daniël den Hoed Cancer Center, University Hospital Rotterdam
  • , I. H. Borel RinkesAffiliated withDepartment of Surgical Oncology, Dr. Daniël den Hoed Cancer Center, University Hospital Rotterdam
  • , C. J. H. van de VeldeAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University Hospital Leiden
  • , T. WiggersAffiliated withDepartment of Surgical Oncology, Dr. Daniël den Hoed Cancer Center, University Hospital Rotterdam
  • , R. A. E. M. TollenaarAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University Hospital Leiden
  • , P. J. K. KuppenAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University Hospital Leiden
  • , A. L. VahrmeijerAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University Hospital Leiden
  • , A. M. M. EggermontAffiliated withDepartment of Surgical Oncology, Dr. Daniël den Hoed Cancer Center, University Hospital Rotterdam

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Abstract

We report our experience with isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and melphalan in an experimental pig study and of a phase I study in humans. IHP was performed with inflow catheters in the hepatic artery and portal vein and an outflow catheter in the caval vein. An extracorporeal venovenous bypass was used. IHP consisted of a 60-min perfusion with hyperthermia (> 41 °C). For the pig protocol rhTNFα 50 μg/kg alone (n = 5) or rhTNFα 50 μg/kg plus melphalan 1 mg/kg (n = 3) were added. In two control pigs no drugs were added. In the phase I study, patients received melphalan 1 mg/kg with 0.4 mg rhTNFα (n = 8) or 0.8 mg rhTNFα (n = 1). After the perfusion the liver was washed with Macrodex before vascular continuity was restored. All pigs but one survived the procedure. Systemic leakage was less than 0.02%. Transient, mild liver toxicity was seen in all pigs, including controls, as demonstrated by liver enzyme assays and histology. There was no significant hemodynamic, cardiopulmonary hemotological, or renal toxicity. In the phase I clinical study there was leakage in one patient (cumulative leakage 20%). There were three perioperative deaths (one possibly drug-related). All patients demonstrated significant hepatotoxicity. Survival ranged from 6 to 26 months (median 10.3 months). All patients demonstrated a tumor response (partial response 5/6, 1/6 stable disease) with a median duration of 18 weeks. In contrast to our pig program, many problems were encountered in the phase I study. By using both the hepatic artery and portal vein for IHP we encountered more toxicity than expected based on data from the pig program, resulting in fatal coagulative disturbances in one patient who received the second rhTNFα dose. Furthermore, local control after one IHP with TNFα and melphalan is only temporary.