The Role of Birds in the Ecology of West Nile Virus in Europe and Africa

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The aim of this chapter is twofold; firstly, to review the literature published since the comprehensive review of Hayes in 1989, and second, to summarize some of the data accumulated during the recent West Nile (WN) virus epizootic in Israel during 1997–2001 including an evaluation of bird migration in the region.

‘Ex Africa semper aliquid novi’ Pliny the Elder: Natural History