Forest Decline and Ozone

Volume 127 of the series Ecological Studies pp 39-67

Ozone and Its Known and Potential Effects on Forests in Western United States

  • P. R. Miller
  • , M. J. Arbaugh
  • , P. J. Temple

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California is the only state in the western United States where ozone damage to montane conifer forests is a significant problem (USEPA 1986). The combination of climate and high rates of precursor emissions from large urban areas in California results in levels of photochemical oxidant air pollution which are consistently higher than other urbanized areas of the United States (Ludwig and Shelar 1980). The transport of polluted air masses can be detected at distances as far as 300–350 km downwind from urban source areas (Carroll and Baskett 1977; Hoffer et al. 1982). Mixed conifer forests on distant mountain ranges are affected by chronic ozone exposure.