Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2013

Volume 8043 of the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science pp 344-360

Quantum One-Time Programs

(Extended Abstract)
  • Anne BroadbentAffiliated withInstitute for Quantum Computing and, Department of Combinatorics and Optimization, University of Waterloo
  • , Gus GutoskiAffiliated withInstitute for Quantum Computing and School of Computer Science, University of Waterloo
  • , Douglas StebilaAffiliated withSchool of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and, School of Mathematical Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology

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A one-time program is a hypothetical device by which a user may evaluate a circuit on exactly one input of his choice, before the device self-destructs. One-time programs cannot be achieved by software alone, as any software can be copied and re-run. However, it is known that every circuit can be compiled into a one-time program using a very basic hypothetical hardware device called a one-time memory. At first glance it may seem that quantum information, which cannot be copied, might also allow for one-time programs. But it is not hard to see that this intuition is false: one-time programs for classical or quantum circuits based solely on quantum information do not exist, even with computational assumptions.

This observation raises the question, “what assumptions are required to achieve one-time programs for quantum circuits?” Our main result is that any quantum circuit can be compiled into a one-time program assuming only the same basic one-time memory devices used for classical circuits. Moreover, these quantum one-time programs achieve statistical universal composability (UC-security) against any malicious user. Our construction employs methods for computation on authenticated quantum data, and we present a new quantum authentication scheme called the trap scheme for this purpose. As a corollary, we establish UC-security of a recent protocol for delegated quantum computation.